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Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder


Schizophrenia (Psychosis) Scale

Psychotic disorders are characaterized by one or more of the following symptom domains: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking (typically inferred from speech), abnormal motor movements, and negative symptoms (e.g., diminished emotional expression, loss of interest in purposeful ativities). The symptoms of psychotic disorders vary in duration and complexity (number and type of symptoms) and include schizophrenia (symptoms last 6 or more months), schizophreniform disorder (symptoms last more than 1 month but less than 6 months), brief psychotic disorder (symptoms lasting no more than 1 month), and schizotypical personality disorder. Symptoms may also be limited to one domain (e.g., delusional disorder) or co-occur with a depressive or manic episode (i.e., schizoaffective disorder). Psychotic symptoms can be induced by other medical conditions (e.g., neurological disorders) or substances (e.g., psychoactive drugs). 

There is a 6-to-12 item (depending on age) Schizophrenia (Psychosis) subscale in the following Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:


  • Child Symptom Inventory (elementary school)

  • Adolescent Symptom Inventory (secondary school)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary & secondary school)

  • Youth’s (Self Report) Inventory (secondary school)

  • Adult Inventories (adults)

The Schizophrenia (Psychosis) subscale is reported on in a number of scientific publications, representative examples of which are Arnold, Gadow, Farmer, et al., 2015; Chien, Gau, and Gadow, 2011; Gadow, 2012; Gadow and Garman, 2020; Gadow, Perlman, Ramdhany, & de Ruiter, 2016; Gadow, Perlman, & Weber, 2017; McGrath, Braaten, Doty, et al., 2016; Rizvi, Salcedo, Youngstrom et al., 2019; Sobin, Kiley-Brabeck, and Karayiorgou,2005; Vuijk, Bush, McGuinness, et al., 2019; and Wenger, Miller, DePolo, et al., 2016.  Abstracts of these and other studies can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.


Rizvi, Salcedo, Youngstrom, et al. (2019) provide empirically derived scoring criteria for the Schizophrenia subscale in children.




            Arnold, L.E., Gadow, K.D., Farmer, C.A., Findling, R.L., Bukstein, O., Molina, B.S.G., et al. (2015). Comorbid anxiety and social avoidance in treatment of severe childhood aggression: response to adding risperidone to stimulant and parent training; mediation of disruptive symptom response.  Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 25, 203-212. doi: 10.1089/cap.2014.0104

            Chien, Y.L., Gau, S.S.F., & Gadow, K.D. (2011). Sex difference in the rates and co-occurring conditions of psychiatric symptoms in incoming college students in Taiwan. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52, 195-207. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2010.03.009 

            Gadow, KD (2012). Schizophrenia spectrum and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in autism spectrum disorder and controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 1076-1084. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.08.001

            Gadow, K.D., & Garman, H.D. (2020). Social anhedonia in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and psychiatry referrals. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 49(2), 239-250. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2018.1514611

            Gadow, K.D., Perlman, G., Ramdhany, L., & de Ruiter, J. (2016). Clinical correlates of co-occurring psychiatric and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom-induced impairment in children with ASD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(1), 129-139. doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-9979-9

            Gadow, K.D., Perlman. G., & Weber, R.J. (2017). Parent-reported developmental regression in autism: Epilepsy, IQ, schizophrenia symptoms, and special education. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47, 918-926. doi: 10.1007/s10803-016-3004-1

            McGrath, L.M., Braaten, E.B., Doty, N.D., Willoughby, B.L., Wilson, H.K., O'Donnell, E.H., Colvin, M.K., Ditmars, H.L., Blais, Jl.E., Hill, E.N. et al. (2016). Extending the "cross-disorder' relevance of executive functions to dimensional neuropsychiatric traits in youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(4), 462-471. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12463

            Rizvi, S. H., Salcedo, S., Youngstrom, E. A., Freeman, L. K., Gadow, K. D., Fristad, M. A., Birmaher, B., Kowatch, R. A., Horwitz, S. M., Frazier, T. W., Arnold, L. E., Taylor, H. G., & Findling, R. L. (2019). Diagnostic accuracy of CASI-4R psychosis subscale for children evaluated in outpatient clinics. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 48(4), 610-621. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2017.1410824

            Sobin, C., Kiley-Brabeck, K., & Karayiorgou, M. (2005). Lower prepulse inhibition in children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1090-1099. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1090

            Vuijk, P.J., Bush, H.H., McGuinness, P.S., O'Keefe, S.M., Lee, B.A., Ditmars, H.L., Samkavitz, A.R., Lind, H.S., Braaten, E.B., & Doyle, A.E. (2019). Characteristics of child psychiatric outpatients at highest risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 50(3), 505-519. doi: 10.1007/s10578-018-0858-9

            Wenger, T.L., Miller, J.S., DePolo, L.M., de Marchena, A.B., Clements, C.C., Emanuel, B.S., Zackai, E.H., McDonald-McGinn, D.M., & Schultz, R.T. (2016). 22q11.2 duplication syndrome: elevated rate of autism spectrum disorder and need for medical screening. Molecular Autism, 7, #27. doi: 10.1186/s13229-016-0097-5

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