ANXIETY DISORDERS
 

agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, selective mutism, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder (social phobia), and specific phobia

 

ANXIETY DISORDERS

 

In DSM-5 the following are classified as anxiety disorders: agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, selective mutism, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder (social phobia), and specific phobia.

 

In the previous version of the DSM, acute stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were considered anxiety disorders. They are now recognized as being closely related to the anxiety disorders, and for this reason, appear at the end of this list.

 

Agoraphobia Item

 

There is one key symptom of agoraphobia in the Checkmate Plus Adult Inventories (adults).

 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale

 

There is an 8-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder subscale in all Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (preschool)

  • Child Symptom Inventory (elementary school)

  • Adolescent Symptom Inventory (secondary school)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary & secondary school)

  • Youth’s (Self Report) Inventory (secondary school)

  • Adult Inventories (adults)

 

The Generalized Anxiety Disorder subscale of Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories is reported on in scores of scientific publications, representative examples of which are Bitsika, Sharpley, Andronicos, et al., 2015; Burgers and Drabick, 2016; Canals, Voltas, Hernandez-Martinez, et al., 2019; Chodzen, Hidalgo, Chen, et al., 2019; Rosen and Lerner, 2018; and Theunissen, Rieffe, Kouwenberg, et al., 2012. Abstracts of these and many other studies about the Generalized Anxiety Disorder subscale can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.

 

Panic Disorder Item

 

There is one key symptom of panic disorder in all Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (early childhood)

  • Child Symptom Inventory (elementary school)

  • Adolescent Symptom Inventory (secondary school)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary & secondary school)

  • Youth’s (Self Report) Inventory (secondary school)

  • Adult Inventories (adults)

 

Selective Mutism Item

 

There is one key symptom of selective mutism in the following Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (early childhood)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary & secondary)

 

Separation Anxiety Disorder Scale

 

The is an 8-item Separation Anxiety Disorder subscale in the following Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (early childhood)

  • Child Symptom Inventory (elementary school)

  • Adolescent Symptom Inventory (secondary school)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary & secondary)

  • Youth’s (Self Report) Inventory (secondary school)

 

The Separation Anxiety Disorder subscale of Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories is reported on in scores of scientific publications, representative examples of which are Gadow, Chernoff, Williams, et al., 2010; Guttmann-Steinmetz, Gadow, DeVincent, et al., 2010; Kinyanda, Salisbury, Levin, et al,, 2019; and Strickland, Keller, Lavigne, et al., 2011.  Abstracts of these and other studies about the Separation Anxiety Disorder subscale can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.

 

Social Anxiety Disorder (formerly Social Phobia) Scale

 

There is a 2-to-4 Social Anxiety Disorder (formerly Social Phobia) subscale in all Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (early childhood)

  • Child Symptom Inventory (elementary school)

  • Adolescent Symptom Inventory (secondary school)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary and secondary school)

  • Youth’s (Self Report) Inventory (secondary)

  • Adult Inventories (adults)

 

The Social Anxiety Disorder (formerly Social Phobia) subscale of Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories is reported on in scores of scientific publications, representative examples of which are Bitsika, Sharpley, McMillan, et al., 2018; Gadow and Garman, 2020; Lau, Gau, Chiu, et al., 2014; and Schneider, Gadow, Crowell, et al. 2009.  Abstracts of these and other studies about the Social Anxiety Disorder subscale can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.

 

Specific Phobia Item

 

There is one key symptom of specific phobia in all Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (early childhood)

  • Child Symptom Inventory (elementary school)

  • Adolescent Symptom Inventory (secondary school)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary & secondary)

  • Youth’s (Self Report) Inventory (secondary school)

  • Adult Inventories (adults)

 

The specific phobia (formerly simple phobia) item of Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories has been reported on in scientific publications, representative examples of which are Dunn, Austin, and Perkins, 2009; Gadow, Nolan, Sprafkin, et al., 2002; and Korzeniewski, Allred, Joseph, et al. 2017. Abstracts of these and other studies about the specific phobia item can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.

 

 

DISORDERS CLOSELY ASSOCIATED with ANXIETY DISORDERS

 

In DSM-5, the following disorders are recognized as being closely related to the anxiety disorders, and Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories can be used to assess their symptoms:

 

Acute Stress Disorder Items

 

There are one or two key symptoms of acute stress disorder in all Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (early childhood)

  • Child Symptom Inventory (elementary school)

  • Adolescent Symptom Inventory (secondary school)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary & secondary school)

  • Youth’s (Self Report) Inventory (secondary school)

  • Adult Inventories (adults)

 

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Items

 

There is one key symptom each for obsessions and compulsions in all Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (early childhood)

  • Child Symptom Inventory (elementary school)

  • Adolescent Symptom Inventory (secondary school)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary & secondary school)

  • Youth’s (Self Report) Inventory (secondary school)

  • Adult Inventories (adults)

 

The obsessive-compulsive disorder items of Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories are reported on in a number of scientific publications, representative examples of which are Canals, Morales-Hidalgo, Jane, et al. 2018; Gadow, Nolan, Sprafkin, et al. 2002; Korzeniewski, Allred, Joseph, et al. 2017; Santore, Gerber, Gioia, et al., 2020; and Schneider, Gadow, Crowell, et al. 2009. Abstracts of these and other studies about the obsessive-compulsive disorder items can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.

 

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (Distressing Event Items)

 

There is an 11-to-12 item Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder subscale in the following Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (early childhood)

  • Adult Inventories (adults)

 

There are one to two Distressing Event Items in all Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories:

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (early childhood)

  • Child Symptom Inventory (elementary school)

  • Adolescent Symptom Inventory (secondary school)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary & secondary school)

  • Youth’s (Self Report) Inventory (secondary school)

  • Adult Inventories (adults)

 

 

CHILD & ADOLESCENT SYMPTOM INVENTORY-PROGRESS MONITOR

 

The Child & Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor (CASI-PM) is a brief behavior rating scale for DSM-5 emotional and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents between 3 and 18 years old. It was developed to monitor the progress over time and to assess changes in symptoms as a function of intervention. There are both parent (29 items) and teacher (30 items) versions of the CASI-PM. The CASI-PM contains a subset of the common items from Early Childhood Inventory-5 (ECI-5) and the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5), which makes it an ideal progress monitor for qualified professionals who use these diagnostic measures. It assesses symptoms of AD/HD, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and depression. The CASI-PM also assess functional impairment (i.e., the degree to which symptoms interfere with social or academic functioning).

 

The Child & Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor is reported on in scientific publications, representative examples of which are Dart, Arora, Collins, and Doll, 2019; Mpango, Ssembajjwe, Muyingo, Gadow, et al., 2019; and Lavigne, Cromley, Sprafkin, and Gadow, 2009. Abstracts of these and other studies can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

            Bitsika, V., Sharpley, C.F., Andronicos, N.M., & Agnew, L.L. (2015). Agreement between self- vs parent-ratings of general anxiety disorder symptoms and salivary cortisol in boys with an ASD. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27(4), 467-477. doi: 10.1007/s10882-015-9431-7

            Bitsika, V., Sharpley, C.F., McMillan, M.E., & Agnew, L.L. (2018). Background cortisol versus social anxiety as correlates of HPA-axis recovery from stress in boys with autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 71, 52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2018.08.004

            Burgers, D.E., & Drabick, D.A.G. (2016). Community violence exposure and generalized anxiety symptoms: does executive functioning serve a moderating role among low income, urban youth? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(8), 1543-1557. 10.1007/s10802-016-0144-x

            Canals, J., Voltas, N., Hernandez-Martinez, C., Cosi, S., & Arija, V. (2019). Prevalence of DSM-5 anxiety disorders, comorbidity, and persistence of symptoms in Spanish early adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(1), 131-143. doi: 10.1007/s00787-018-1207-z

            Chodzen, G., Hidalgo, M.A., Chen, D., & Garofalo, R. (2019). Minority stress factors associated with depression and anxiety among transgender and gender-nonconforming youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 64(4), 467-471. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.07.006

            Dart, E.H., Arora, P.G., Collins, T.A., & Doll, B. (2019). Progress monitoring measures for internalizing symptoms: a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature. School Mental Health, 11(2), 265-275. doi: 10.1007/s12310-018-9299-7

            Dunn, D. W., Austin, J. K.., & Perkins, S.M. (2009). Prevalence of psychopathology in childhood epilepsy: categorical and dimensional measures. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 51, 364-372. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03172.x

            Gadow, K.D., Chernoff, M., Williams, P.L., Brouwers, P., Morse, E., Heston, J., Hodge, J., Di Paolo, V., Deygoo, N.S., Nachman, S. (2010). Co-occuring psychiatric symptoms in children perinatally infected with HIV and peer comparison sample. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 31, 116-128. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181cdaa20

            Gadow, K.D., & Garman, H.D. (2020). Social anhedonia in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and psychiatry referrals, Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 49(2), 239-250, doi: 10.1080/15374416.2018.1514611

            Gadow, K.D., Nolan, E.E., Sprafkin, J., & Schwartz, J. (2002). Tics and psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 44, 330-338. doi: 10.1017/S001216220100216X

           Guttmann-Steinmetz, S., Gadow, K.D., DeVincent, C.J., & Crowell, J. (2010). Anxiety symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or chronic multiple tic disorder and community controls. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1006-1016. 10.1007/s10803-010-0950-x

            Kinyanda, E., Salisbury, T.T., Levin, J., Nakasujja, N., Mpango, R.S., Abbo, C., Seedat, S., Araya, R., Musisi, S., Gadow, K.D. et al.  (2019). Rates, types and co-occurrence of emotional and behavioural disorders among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Uganda: the CHAKA study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 54(4), 415-425. doi: 10.1007/s00127-019-01675-0

            Korzeniewski, S.J., Allred, E.N., Joseph, R.M., Heeren, T., Kuban, K.C.K., O'Shea, T.M., & Leviton, A. (2017). Group neurodevelopment at age 10 years of children born < 28 weeks with fetal growth restriction. Pediatrics, 140 (5), Article Number: e20170697. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-0697

            Lavigne, J.V., Cromley, T., Sprafkin, J., & Gadow, K.D. (2009). The Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor: A brief DSM-IV-referenced parent-report scale for children and adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 19, 241-252. doi: 10.1089/cap.2008.052

            Lau, W. Y. P., Gau, S. S. F., Chiu, Y. N., & Wu, Y. Y. (2014). Autistic traits in couple dyads as a predictor of anxiety spectrum symptoms. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(11), 2949-2963. doi: 10.1007/s10803-014-2151-5

         Mpango, R.S., Ssembajjwe, W., Muyingo, S.K., Gadow, K.D., Patel, V., & Kinyanda, E. (2020). Adaptation and validation of a brief DSM-5 based psychiatric rating scale for childhood and adolescent mental health in Uganda: the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor (CASI-PM). Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 15:2, 144-154, doi: 10.1080/17450128.2019.1686672

            Rosen, T.E., & Lerner, M.D. (2018). Error-related brain activity and anxiety symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research, 11(2), 342-354. doi: 10.1002/aur.1898

            Schneider, J., Gadow, K.D., Crowell, J.A., et al. (2009). Anxiety in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without chronic multiple tic disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 19, 737-748. Doi: 10.1089/cap.2009.0013

            Strickland, J., Keller, J., Lavigne, J.V., Gouze, K., Hopkins, J., & LeBailly, S. (2011). The structure of psychopathology in a community sample of preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 601-610. doi: 10.1007/s10802-011-9487-5

            Theunissen, S.C.P.M., Rieffe, C., Kouwenberg, M., De Raeve, L., Soede, W., Briaire, J.J., & Frijns, J.H.M. (2012). Anxiety in children with hearing aids or cochlear implants compared to normally hearing controls. Laryngoscope, 122, 654-659. doi: 10.1002/lary.22502