ATTENTION-DEFICIT / HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

(ADHD)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders.  The core symptoms of AD/HD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. In DSM-5, there are three variants: predominantly inattentive presentation, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation, and combined presentation.

Individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for a specific disorder often exhibit the symptoms of (or meet diagnostic criteria for) other psychiatric disorders, which is often referred to as co-morbidity or symptom co-occurrance. Using Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories, scores of studies have shown this is also the case for AD/HD. Abstracts of many of these studies can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography. Because individuals with AD/HD typically exhibit the symptoms of other psychiatric disorders, assessment batteries that evaluate a range of disorders are optimal in clinical management.

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Scale

 

The 18-item AD/HD subscale appears in all Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories. This subscale is scored for each of the three variants of AD/HD.

 

  • Early Childhood Inventory (early childhood)

  • Child Symptom Inventory (elementary school)

  • Adolescent Symptom Inventory (middle school, junior & senior high school)

  • Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (elementary & secondary school)

  • Youth’s (Self Report) Inventory (middle school, junior & senior high school)

  • Adult Inventories (adults)

 

The AD/HD subscale of Checkmate Plus Symptom Inventories is one of the first published DSM-referenced ADHD rating scales and is reported on in hundreds of scientific publications, representative examples of which are Gadow and Nolan, 2002; Gadow, Drabick, Loney, et al., 2004; Gadow, DeVincent, & Pomeroy, 2006; Gadow, DeVincent, and Schneider, 2009; Nolan, Volpe, Gadow, et al., 1999; Nolan, Sverd, Gadow, et al., 1996; Salisbury, Kinyanda, Levin, et al., Gadow, 2020; and Sverd, Gadow, and Paolicelli, 1989. Abstracts of these and many other studies about the AD/HD subscale can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.

 

ADDITIONAL CHECKMATE PLUS ADHD SCALES

 

Checkmate Plus offers two assessment instruments that focus primarily on AD/HD:

 

  • ADHD-Symptom Checklist (children and adolescents)

 

  • ADHD School Observation Code (elementary school)

  • Child & Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor

ADHD Symptom Checklist

The ADHD Symptom Checklist-4 (ADHD-SC4) is a 50-item rating scale for evaluating response to treatment in children and adolescents with AD/HD (ages 3 to 18 years). The same version can be completed by parents and teachers. The ADHD-SC4 comprises four subscales: DSM-5 symptoms of AD/HD; DSM-5 symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); the Peer Conflict Scale, which measures interpersonal peer aggression; and the Stimulant Side Effects Checklist (to monitor medication). The ADHD Symptom Checklist-4 or its subscales have been reported on in scores of scientific publications, representative examples of which are Angello, Volpe, DiPerna, et al., 2003; Block, 1998; Gadow, Arnold, Molina, et al., 2014; Pfiffner, Hinshaw, Owens, et al., 2014; Ogg, Rogers, and Volpe, 2020; and Pelham, Fabiano, and Massetti, 2005. Abstracts of these and other studies can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.

ADHD School Observation Code

Experts recommend using direct observations of school behavior in evaluations of children with AD/HD. An observer can use the ADHD School Observation Code (ADHD SOC) to assess the behavioral symptoms of AD/HD, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct problems in structured (classroom), semi-structured (lunchroom), and unstructured (playground) settings. Research shows that direct observations of child behaviors are important when making differential diagnoses, planning special education services, formulating treatment plans, and monitoring response to intervention. In over a dozen studies using the ADHD SOC, it has been shown that with a modest amount of training it is possible to achieve a high degree of inter-rater reliability.

The ADHD School Observation Code is reported on in a number of scientific publications, representative examples of which are Gadow and Nolan, 1993; Gadow, Nolan, Paolicelli, et al., 1991; Gadow, Nolan, and Sverd, 1992; Gadow, Paolicelli, Nolan, et al., 1992; Gadow, Pomeroy, and Nolan, 1992; Gadow, Sprafkin, and Ficarrotto, 1987; Leff and Lakin, 2005; Nolan and Gadow, 1994; Nolan, Gadow, and Sverd, 1994; and Volpe, DiPerna, Hintze, and Shapiro, 2005. Abstracts of these and other studies can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.

 

Child & Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor

 

The Child & Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor (CASI-PM) is a brief behavior rating scale for DSM-5 emotional and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents between 3 and 18 years old. It was developed to monitor the progress over time and to assess changes in symptoms as a function of intervention. There are both parent (29 items) and teacher (30 items) versions of the CASI-PM. The CASI-PM contains a subset of the common items from Early Childhood Inventory-5 (ECI-5) and the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5), which makes it an ideal progress monitor for qualified professionals who use these diagnostic measures. It assesses symptoms of AD/HD, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and depression. The CASI-PM also assess functional impairment (i.e., the degree to which symptoms interfere with social or academic functioning).

 

The Child & Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor is reported on in scientific publications, representative examples of which are Dart, Arora, Collins, and Doll, 2019; Mpango, Ssembajjwe, Muyingo, Gadow, et al., 2019; and Lavigne, Cromley, Sprafkin, and Gadow, 2009. Abstracts of these and other studies can be accessed by clicking the link to Research Bibliography.

 

REFERENCES

 

            Angello, L.M., Volpe, R.J., DiPerna, J.C., Gureasko-Moore, S.P., Gureasko-Moore, D.P., Nebrig, M.R., & Ota, K. (2003). Assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: An evaluation of six published rating scales. School Psychology Review, 32, 241-262. doi: 10.1080/02796015.2003.12086196

            Block, S.L. (1998). Attention-deficit disorder: A paradigm for psychotropic medication intervention in pediatrics. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 45, 1053-1083. doi: 10.1016/s0031-3955(05)70062-6

            Dart, E.H., Arora, P.G., Collins, T.A., & Doll, B. (2019). Progress monitoring measures for internalizing symptoms: a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature. School Mental Health, 11(2), 265-275. DOI: 10.1007/s12310-018-9299-7

            Gadow, K.D., Arnold, L.E., Molina, B.S.G., et al. (2014). Risperidone added to parent training + stimulant medication: Effects on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and peer aggression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 948-959. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2014.05.008

         Gadow, K.D., & Nolan, E.E. (1993). Practical considerations in conducting school-based medication evaluations for children with hyperactivity. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 1, 118-126.doi: 10.1177/106342669300100205

         Gadow, K.D., Nolan, E.E., Paolicelli, L.M., et al. (1991). A procedure for assessing the effects of methylphenidate on hyperactive children in public school settings. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 268-276. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2003_5

         Gadow, K.D., Nolan, E.E., & Sverd, J. (1992). Methylphenidate in hyperactive boys with comorbid tic disorder:  II. Behavioral effects in school settings. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 462-471. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199205000-00012

         Gadow, K.D., Paolicelli, L.M., Nolan, E.E., et al. (1992). Methylphenidate in aggressive hyperactive boys:  II. Indirect effects of medication on peer behavior. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2, 49-61. doi: 10.1089/cap.1992.2.49

         Gadow, K.D., Pomeroy, J.C., & Nolan, E.E. (1992). A procedure for monitoring stimulant medication in hyperactive mentally retarded school children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2, 131-143. doi: 10.1089/cap.1992.2.131

         Gadow, K.D., Sprafkin, J., & Ficarrotto, T.J. (1987). Effects of viewing aggression‑laden cartoons on preschool‑aged emotionally disturbed children.  Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 17, 257‑274. doi: 10.1007/BF00706450

            Lavigne, J.V., Cromley, T., Sprafkin, J., & Gadow, K.D. (2009). The Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor: A brief DSM-IV-referenced parent-report scale for children and adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 19, 241-252. doi: 10.1089/cap.2008.052

         Leff, S.S., & Lakin, R. (2005). Playground-based observational systems: A review and implications for practitioners and researchers. School Psychology Review, 34, 475-489. doi:10.1080/02796015.2005.12088010

         Mpango, R.S., Ssembajjwe, W., Muyingo, S.K., Gadow, K.D., Patel, V., & Kinyanda, E. (2020). Adaptation and validation of a brief DSM-5 based psychiatric rating scale for childhood and adolescent mental health in Uganda: the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor (CASI-PM). Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 15:2, 144-154, doi: 10.1080/17450128.2019.1686672

         Nolan, E.E., & Gadow, K.D. (1994). Relation between ratings and observations of stimulant drug response in hyperactive children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 78-90. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2301_10

         Nolan, E.E., Gadow, K.D., & Sverd, J. (1994). Observations and ratings of tics in school settings. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 579-593. doi: 10.1007/BF02168939

            Pfiffner, L. J., Hinshaw, S. P., Owens, E., Zalecki, C., Kaiser, N. M., Villodas, M., & McBurnett, K. (2014). A two-site randomized clinical trial of integrated psychosocial treatment for ADHD-inattentive type. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(6), 1115-1127. doi: 10.1037/a0036887

            Ogg, J.A., Rogers, M.A., & Volpe, R.J. (2020). Child ADHD symptoms and parent involvement in education. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29(12), 3586-3595. doi: 10.1007/s10826-020-01834-x

            Pelham, W.E., Fabiano, G.A., & Massetti, G.M. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 449-476. DOI: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3403_5

            Gadow, K.D., & Nolan, E.E. (2002). Differences between preschool children with ODD, ADHD, and ODD+ADHD symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 191-201. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00012

            Gadow, K.D., Drabick, D.A.G., Loney, J., et al., (2004). Comparison of ADHD symptom subtypes as source-specific syndromes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1135-1149. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00306.x

            Gadow, K.D., DeVincent, C.J., & Pomeroy, J. (2006). ADHD symptom subtypes in children with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 271-283. doi: 10.1007/s10803-005-0060-3

            Gadow, K.D., DeVincent, C.J., & Schneider, J. (2009). Comparative study of children with ADHD Only, autism spectrum disorder+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder+ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12, 474-485. doi: 10.1177/1087054708320404

            Nolan, E.E., Volpe, R.J., Gadow, K.D., et al. (1999). Developmental, gender, and comorbidity differences in clinically referred children with ADHD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 7, 11-20. doi: 10.1177/106342669900700102

             Nolan, E.E., Sverd, J., Gadow, K.D., et al., (1996). Associated psychopathology in children with both ADHD and chronic tic disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1622-1630. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199612000-00014

            Salisbury, T.T., Kinyanda, E., Levin, J., Foster, A., Mpango, R., Patel, V., & Gadow, K.D. (2020). Clinical correlates and adverse outcomes of ADHD, disruptive behavior disorder and their co-occurrence among children and adolescents with HIV in Uganda. AIDS Care. DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2020.1742860

            Sverd, J., Gadow, K.D., & Paolicelli, L.M. (1989).  Methylphenidate treatment of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity in boys with Tourette syndrome.  Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 574-579. doi: 10.1097/00004583-198907000-00016

            Volpe, R.J., DiPerna, J.C., Hintze, J.M., & Shapiro, E.S. (2005). Observing students in classroom settings: A review of seven coding schemes. School Psychology Review, 34, 454-474. doi: 10.1080/02796015.2005.12088009